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Changes between Version 2 and Version 3 of TracStandalone


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Timestamp:
Feb 27, 2019, 11:18:20 PM (4 years ago)
Author:
trac
Comment:

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  • TracStandalone

    v2 v3  
    1 = Tracd =
    2 
    3 Tracd is a lightweight standalone Trac web server. In most cases it's easier to setup and runs faster than the [wiki:TracCgi CGI script].
    4 
    5 == Pros ==
     1= Tracd
     2
     3Tracd is a lightweight standalone Trac web server.
     4It can be used in a variety of situations, from a test or development server to a multiprocess setup behind another web server used as a load balancer.
     5
     6== Pros
    67
    78 * Fewer dependencies: You don't need to install apache or any other web-server.
    8  * Fast: Should be almost as fast as the [wiki:TracModPython mod_python] version (and much faster than the [wiki:TracCgi CGI]).
     9 * Fast: Should be almost as fast as the [wiki:TracModPython mod_python] version (and much faster than the [wiki:TracCgi CGI]), even more so since version 0.12 where the HTTP/1.1 version of the protocol is enabled by default
    910 * Automatic reloading: For development, Tracd can be used in ''auto_reload'' mode, which will automatically restart the server whenever you make a change to the code (in Trac itself or in a plugin).
    1011
    11 == Cons ==
    12 
    13  * Fewer features: Tracd implements a very simple web-server and is not as configurable or as scalable as Apache HTTPD.
     12== Cons
     13
     14 * Fewer features: Tracd implements a very simple web-server and is not as configurable or as scalable as Apache httpd.
    1415 * No native HTTPS support: [http://www.rickk.com/sslwrap/ sslwrap] can be used instead,
    15    or [http://trac.edgewall.org/wiki/STunnelTracd stunnel -- a tutorial on how to use stunnel with tracd] or Apache with mod_proxy.
    16 
    17 == Usage examples ==
     16   or [trac:wiki:STunnelTracd stunnel -- a tutorial on how to use stunnel with tracd] or Apache with mod_proxy.
     17
     18== Usage examples
    1819
    1920A single project on port 8080. (http://localhost:8080/)
    20 {{{
     21{{{#!sh
    2122 $ tracd -p 8080 /path/to/project
    2223}}}
    23 Stricly speaking this will make your Trac accessible to everybody from your network rather than ''localhost only''. To truly limit it use ''--hostname'' option.
    24 {{{
     24Strictly speaking this will make your Trac accessible to everybody from your network rather than ''localhost only''. To truly limit it use the `--hostname` option.
     25{{{#!sh
    2526 $ tracd --hostname=localhost -p 8080 /path/to/project
    2627}}}
    2728With more than one project. (http://localhost:8080/project1/ and http://localhost:8080/project2/)
    28 {{{
     29{{{#!sh
    2930 $ tracd -p 8080 /path/to/project1 /path/to/project2
    3031}}}
     
    3435
    3536An alternative way to serve multiple projects is to specify a parent directory in which each subdirectory is a Trac project, using the `-e` option. The example above could be rewritten:
     37{{{#!sh
     38 $ tracd -p 8080 -e /path/to
     39}}}
     40
     41To exit the server on Windows, be sure to use `CTRL-BREAK` -- using `CTRL-C` will leave a Python process running in the background.
     42
     43== Installing as a Windows Service
     44
     45=== Option 1
     46To install as a Windows service, get the [http://www.google.com/search?q=srvany.exe SRVANY] utility and run:
     47{{{#!cmd
     48 C:\path\to\instsrv.exe tracd C:\path\to\srvany.exe
     49 reg add HKLM\SYSTEM\CurrentControlSet\Services\tracd\Parameters /v Application /d "\"C:\path\to\python.exe\" \"C:\path\to\python\scripts\tracd-script.py\" <your tracd parameters>"
     50 net start tracd
     51}}}
     52
     53'''DO NOT''' use {{{tracd.exe}}}.  Instead register {{{python.exe}}} directly with {{{tracd-script.py}}} as a parameter.  If you use {{{tracd.exe}}}, it will spawn the python process without SRVANY's knowledge.  This python process will survive a {{{net stop tracd}}}.
     54
     55If you want tracd to start automatically when you boot Windows, do:
     56{{{#!cmd
     57 sc config tracd start= auto
     58}}}
     59
     60The spacing here is important.
     61
     62{{{#!div
     63Once the service is installed, it might be simpler to run the Registry Editor rather than use the `reg add` command documented above.  Navigate to:[[BR]]
     64`HKEY_LOCAL_MACHINE\SYSTEM\CurrentControlSet\Services\tracd\Parameters`
     65
     66Three (string) parameters are provided:
     67||!AppDirectory ||C:\Python26\ ||
     68||Application ||python.exe ||
     69||!AppParameters ||scripts\tracd-script.py -p 8080 ... ||
     70
     71Note that, if the !AppDirectory is set as above, the paths of the executable ''and'' of the script name and parameter values are relative to the directory.  This makes updating Python a little simpler because the change can be limited, here, to a single point.
     72(This is true for the path to the .htpasswd file, as well, despite the documentation calling out the /full/path/to/htpasswd; however, you may not wish to store that file under the Python directory.)
     73}}}
     74
     75For Windows 7 User, srvany.exe may not be an option, so you can use [http://www.google.com/search?q=winserv.exe WINSERV] utility and run:
     76{{{#!cmd
     77"C:\path\to\winserv.exe" install tracd -displayname "tracd" -start auto "C:\path\to\python.exe" c:\path\to\python\scripts\tracd-script.py <your tracd parameters>"
     78net start tracd
     79}}}
     80
     81=== Option 2
     82
     83Use [http://trac-hacks.org/wiki/WindowsServiceScript WindowsServiceScript], available at [http://trac-hacks.org/ Trac Hacks]. Installs, removes, starts, stops, etc. your Trac service.
     84
     85=== Option 3
     86
     87also cygwin's cygrunsrv.exe can be used:
     88{{{#!sh
     89$ cygrunsrv --install tracd --path /cygdrive/c/Python27/Scripts/tracd.exe --args '--port 8000 --env-parent-dir E:\IssueTrackers\Trac\Projects'
     90$ net start tracd
     91}}}
     92
     93== Using Authentication
     94
     95Tracd allows you to run Trac without the need for Apache, but you can take advantage of Apache's password tools (`htpasswd` and `htdigest`) to easily create a password file in the proper format for tracd to use in authentication. (It is also possible to create the password file without `htpasswd` or `htdigest`; see below for alternatives)
     96
     97{{{#!div style="border: 1pt dotted; margin: 1em"
     98**Attention:** Make sure you place the generated password files on a filesystem which supports sub-second timestamps, as Trac will monitor their modified time and changes happening on a filesystem with too coarse-grained timestamp resolution (like `ext2` or `ext3` on Linux, or HFS+ on OSX).
     99}}}
     100
     101Tracd provides support for both Basic and Digest authentication. Digest is considered more secure. The examples below use Digest; to use Basic authentication, replace `--auth` with `--basic-auth` in the command line.
     102
     103The general format for using authentication is:
     104{{{#!sh
     105 $ tracd -p port --auth="base_project_dir,password_file_path,realm" project_path
     106}}}
     107where:
     108 * '''base_project_dir''': the base directory of the project specified as follows:
     109   * when serving multiple projects: ''relative'' to the `project_path`
     110   * when serving only a single project (`-s`): the name of the project directory
     111 Don't use an absolute path here as this won't work. ''Note:'' This parameter is case-sensitive even for environments on Windows.
     112 * '''password_file_path''': path to the password file
     113 * '''realm''': the realm name (can be anything)
     114 * '''project_path''': path of the project
     115
     116 * **`--auth`** in the above means use Digest authentication, replace `--auth` with `--basic-auth` if you want to use Basic auth.  Although Basic authentication does not require a "realm", the command parser does, so the second comma is required, followed directly by the closing quote for an empty realm name.
     117
     118Examples:
     119
     120{{{#!sh
     121 $ tracd -p 8080 \
     122   --auth="project1,/path/to/passwordfile,mycompany.com" /path/to/project1
     123}}}
     124
     125Of course, the password file can be be shared so that it is used for more than one project:
     126{{{#!sh
     127 $ tracd -p 8080 \
     128   --auth="project1,/path/to/passwordfile,mycompany.com" \
     129   --auth="project2,/path/to/passwordfile,mycompany.com" \
     130   /path/to/project1 /path/to/project2
     131}}}
     132
     133Another way to share the password file is to specify "*" for the project name:
     134{{{#!sh
     135 $ tracd -p 8080 \
     136   --auth="*,/path/to/users.htdigest,mycompany.com" \
     137   /path/to/project1 /path/to/project2
     138}}}
     139
     140=== Basic Authorization: Using a htpasswd password file
     141This section describes how to use `tracd` with Apache .htpasswd files.
     142
     143  Note: On Windows It is necessary to install the [https://pypi.python.org/pypi/passlib passlib]
     144  package in order to decode some htpasswd formats. Only `SHA-1` passwords (since Trac 1.0)
     145  work without this module.
     146
     147To create a .htpasswd file use Apache's `htpasswd` command (see [#GeneratingPasswordsWithoutApache below] for a method to create these files without using Apache):
     148{{{#!sh
     149 $ sudo htpasswd -c /path/to/env/.htpasswd username
     150}}}
     151then for additional users:
     152{{{#!sh
     153 $ sudo htpasswd /path/to/env/.htpasswd username2
     154}}}
     155
     156Then to start `tracd` run something like this:
     157{{{#!sh
     158 $ tracd -p 8080 --basic-auth="project,/fullpath/environmentname/.htpasswd,realmname" /path/to/project
     159}}}
     160
     161For example:
     162{{{#!sh
     163 $ tracd -p 8080 --basic-auth="project,/srv/tracenv/testenv/.htpasswd,My Test Env" /path/to/project
     164}}}
     165''Note:'' You might need to pass "-m" as a parameter to htpasswd on some platforms (OpenBSD).
     166
     167=== Digest authentication: Using a htdigest password file
     168
     169If you have Apache available, you can use the htdigest command to generate the password file. Type 'htdigest' to get some usage instructions, or read [http://httpd.apache.org/docs/2.0/programs/htdigest.html this page] from the Apache manual to get precise instructions.  You'll be prompted for a password to enter for each user that you create.  For the name of the password file, you can use whatever you like, but if you use something like `users.htdigest` it will remind you what the file contains. As a suggestion, put it in your <projectname>/conf folder along with the [TracIni trac.ini] file.
     170
     171Note that you can start tracd without the `--auth` argument, but if you click on the ''Login'' link you will get an error.
     172
     173=== Generating Passwords Without Apache
     174
     175Basic Authorization can be accomplished via this [http://aspirine.org/htpasswd_en.html online HTTP Password generator] which also supports `SHA-1`.  Copy the generated password-hash line to the .htpasswd file on your system. Note that Windows Python lacks the "crypt" module that is the default hash type for htpasswd. Windows Python can grok MD5 password hashes just fine and you should use MD5.
     176
     177Trac also provides `htpasswd` and `htdigest` scripts in `contrib`:
     178{{{#!sh
     179$ ./contrib/htpasswd.py -cb htpasswd user1 user1
     180$ ./contrib/htpasswd.py -b htpasswd user2 user2
     181}}}
     182
     183{{{#!sh
     184$ ./contrib/htdigest.py -cb htdigest trac user1 user1
     185$ ./contrib/htdigest.py -b htdigest trac user2 user2
     186}}}
     187
     188==== Using `md5sum`
     189It is possible to use `md5sum` utility to generate digest-password file:
     190{{{#!sh
     191user=
     192realm=
     193password=
     194path_to_file=
     195echo ${user}:${realm}:$(printf "${user}:${realm}:${password}" | md5sum - | sed -e 's/\s\+-//') > ${path_to_file}
     196}}}
     197
     198== Reference
     199
     200Here's the online help, as a reminder (`tracd --help`):
    36201{{{
    37  $ tracd -p 8080 -e /path/to
    38 }}}
    39 
    40 To exit the server on Windows, be sure to use {{{CTRL-BREAK}}} -- using {{{CTRL-C}}} will leave a Python process running in the background.
    41 
    42 When running as a Windows service using a utility such as [http://www.google.com/search?q=srvany.exe SRVANY], stopping or restarting the service will also leave a Python process running -- restart the system instead.
    43 
    44 
    45 == Using Authentication ==
    46 
    47 Using tracd with Apache .htpasswd files:
    48 
    49 To create a .htpasswd file using htpasswd:
    50 
    51 {{{
    52 sudo htpasswd -c /path/to/env/.htpasswd username
    53 }}}
    54 then for additional users:
    55 {{{
    56 sudo htpasswd /path/to/env/.htpasswd username2
    57 }}}
    58 then for starting the tracd:
    59 {{{
    60 tracd -p 8080 --basic-auth=environmentname,/fullpath/environmentname/.htpasswd,/fullpath/environmentname /fullpath/environmentname
    61 }}}
    62 
    63 
    64 Tracd provides support for both Basic and Digest authentication. The default is to use Digest; to use Basic authentication, replace `--auth` with `--basic-auth` in the examples below. (You must still specify a dialogic "realm", which can be an empty string by trailing the BASICAUTH with a comma.)
    65 
    66   ''Support for Basic authentication was added in version 0.9.''
    67 
    68 The general format for using authentication is:
    69 
    70 {{{
    71  $ tracd -p port --auth=base_project_dir,password_file_path,realm project_path
    72 }}}
    73 
    74 where:
    75 
    76  * '''base_project_dir''' is the base directory of the project; note: this doesn't refer to the project name, and it is case-sensitive even for windows environments
    77  * '''password_file_path''' path of the password file
    78  * '''realm''' realm
    79  * '''project_path''' path of the project
    80 
    81 Example:
    82 
    83 {{{
    84  $ tracd -p 8080 \
    85    --auth=project1,/path/to/users.htdigest,mycompany.com /path/to/project1
    86 }}}
    87 Of course, the digest file can be be shared so that it is used for more than one project:
    88 {{{
    89  $ tracd -p 8080 \
    90    --auth=project1,/path/to/users.htdigest,mycompany.com \
    91    --auth=project2,/path/to/users.htdigest,mycompany.com \
    92    /path/to/project1 /path/to/project2
    93 }}}
    94 
    95 Another way to share the digest file is to specify "*"
    96 for the project name:
    97 {{{
    98  $ tracd -p 8080 \
    99    --auth="*",/path/to/users.htdigest,mycompany.com \
    100    /path/to/project1 /path/to/project2
    101 }}}
    102 If using the `-s` parameter for serving a Trac environment from the root of a domain, one must use `*` for the project name
    103 
    104 == How to set up an htdigest password file ==
    105 
    106 If you have Apache available, you can use the htdigest command to generate the password file. Type 'htdigest' to get some usage instructions, or read [http://httpd.apache.org/docs/2.0/programs/htdigest.html this page] from the Apache manual to get precise instructions.  You'll be prompted for a password to enter for each user that you create.  For the name of the password file, you can use whatever you like, but if you use something like `users.htdigest` it will remind you what the file contains. As a suggestion, put it in your <projectname>/conf folder along with the [TracIni trac.ini] file.
    107 
    108 Note that you can start tracd without the --auth argument, but if you click on the ''Login'' link you will get an error.
    109 
    110 == Generating Passwords Without Apache ==
    111 
    112 If you don't have Apache available, you can use this simple Python script to generate your passwords:
    113 
    114 {{{
    115 #!python
    116 from optparse import OptionParser
    117 # The md5 module is deprecated in Python 2.5
    118 try:
    119     from hashlib import md5
    120 except ImportError:
    121     from md5 import md5
    122 realm = 'trac'
    123 
    124 # build the options
    125 usage = "usage: %prog [options]"
    126 parser = OptionParser(usage=usage)
    127 parser.add_option("-u", "--username",action="store", dest="username", type = "string",
    128                   help="the username for whom to generate a password")
    129 parser.add_option("-p", "--password",action="store", dest="password", type = "string",
    130                   help="the password to use")
    131 parser.add_option("-r", "--realm",action="store", dest="realm", type = "string",
    132                   help="the realm in which to create the digest")
    133 (options, args) = parser.parse_args()
    134 
    135 # check options
    136 if (options.username is None) or (options.password is None):
    137    parser.error("You must supply both the username and password")
    138 if (options.realm is not None):
    139    realm = options.realm
    140    
    141 # Generate the string to enter into the htdigest file
    142 kd = lambda x: md5(':'.join(x)).hexdigest()
    143 print ':'.join((options.username, realm, kd([options.username, realm, options.password])))
    144 }}}
    145 
    146 Note: If you use the above script you must use the --auth option to tracd, not --basic-auth, and you must set the realm in the --auth value to 'trac' (without the quotes). Example usage (assuming you saved the script as trac-digest.py):
    147 
    148 {{{
    149 python trac-digest.py -u username -p password >> c:\digest.txt
    150 tracd --port 8000 --auth=proj_name,c:\digest.txt,trac c:\path\to\proj_name
    151 }}}
    152 
    153 Note: If you would like to use --basic-auth you need to use htpasswd tool from apache server to generate .htpasswd file. The remaining part is similar but make sure to use empty realm (i.e. coma after path). When using on Windows make sure to use -m option for it (did not tested it on *nix, so not sure if that is the case there).  If you do not have Apache, [trac:source:/tags/trac-0.11b2/contrib/htpasswd.py htpasswd.py] may help.  (Note that it requires a `crypt` or `fcrypt` module; see the source comments for details.)
    154 
    155 It is possible to use md5sum utility to generate digest-password file using such method:
    156 {{{
    157 echo -e "${user}:trac:${password}\c" | md5sum - >>to-file
    158 }}}
    159 and manually delete " -" from the end and add "${user}:trac:" to the start of line from 'to-file'. You can see attachment:trac-digest-corrected.sh for detail.
    160 
    161 == Tips ==
    162 
    163 === Serving static content ===
    164 
    165 If `tracd` is the only webserver used for the project,
     202Usage: tracd [options] [projenv] ...
     203
     204Options:
     205  --version             show program's version number and exit
     206  -h, --help            show this help message and exit
     207  -a DIGESTAUTH, --auth=DIGESTAUTH
     208                        [projectdir],[htdigest_file],[realm]
     209  --basic-auth=BASICAUTH
     210                        [projectdir],[htpasswd_file],[realm]
     211  -p PORT, --port=PORT  the port number to bind to
     212  -b HOSTNAME, --hostname=HOSTNAME
     213                        the host name or IP address to bind to
     214  --protocol=PROTOCOL   http|scgi|ajp|fcgi
     215  -q, --unquote         unquote PATH_INFO (may be needed when using ajp)
     216  --http10              use HTTP/1.0 protocol version instead of HTTP/1.1
     217  --http11              use HTTP/1.1 protocol version (default)
     218  -e PARENTDIR, --env-parent-dir=PARENTDIR
     219                        parent directory of the project environments
     220  --base-path=BASE_PATH
     221                        the initial portion of the request URL's "path"
     222  -r, --auto-reload     restart automatically when sources are modified
     223  -s, --single-env      only serve a single project without the project list
     224  -d, --daemonize       run in the background as a daemon
     225  --pidfile=PIDFILE     when daemonizing, file to which to write pid
     226  --umask=MASK          when daemonizing, file mode creation mask to use, in
     227                        octal notation (default 022)
     228  --group=GROUP         the group to run as
     229  --user=USER           the user to run as
     230}}}
     231
     232Use the -d option so that tracd doesn't hang if you close the terminal window where tracd was started.
     233
     234== Tips
     235
     236=== Serving static content
     237
     238If `tracd` is the only web server used for the project,
    166239it can also be used to distribute static content
    167240(tarballs, Doxygen documentation, etc.)
     
    172245Example: given a `$TRAC_ENV/htdocs/software-0.1.tar.gz` file,
    173246the corresponding relative URL would be `/<project_name>/chrome/site/software-0.1.tar.gz`,
    174 which in turn can be written using the relative link syntax
    175 in the Wiki: `[/<project_name>/chrome/site/software-0.1.tar.gz]`
    176 
    177 The development version of Trac supports a new `htdocs:` TracLinks
    178 syntax for the above. With this, the example link above can be written simply
    179 `htdocs:software-0.1.tar.gz`.
    180 
    181 === Using apache rewrite rules ===
    182 In some situations when you choose to use tracd behind apache, you might experience issues with redirects, like being redirected to URLs with the wrong host or protocol. In this case (and only in this case), setting the `[trac] use_base_url_for_redirect` to `true` can help, as this will force Trac to use the value of `[trac] base_url` for doing the redirects.
    183 
    184 === Serving a different base path than / ===
     247which in turn can be written as `htdocs:software-0.1.tar.gz` (TracLinks syntax) or `[/<project_name>/chrome/site/software-0.1.tar.gz]` (relative link syntax).
     248
     249=== Using tracd behind a proxy
     250
     251In some situations when you choose to use tracd behind Apache or another web server.
     252
     253In this situation, you might experience issues with redirects, like being redirected to URLs with the wrong host or protocol. In this case (and only in this case), setting the `[trac] use_base_url_for_redirect` to `true` can help, as this will force Trac to use the value of `[trac] base_url` for doing the redirects.
     254
     255If you're using the AJP protocol to connect with `tracd` (which is possible if you have flup installed), then you might experience problems with double quoting. Consider adding the `--unquote` parameter.
     256
     257See also [trac:TracOnWindowsIisAjp], [trac:TracNginxRecipe].
     258
     259=== Authentication for tracd behind a proxy
     260It is convenient to provide central external authentication to your tracd instances, instead of using `--basic-auth`. There is some discussion about this in [trac:#9206].
     261
     262Below is example configuration based on Apache 2.2, mod_proxy, mod_authnz_ldap.
     263
     264First we bring tracd into Apache's location namespace.
     265
     266{{{#!apache
     267<Location /project/proxified>
     268        Require ldap-group cn=somegroup, ou=Groups,dc=domain.com
     269        Require ldap-user somespecificusertoo
     270        ProxyPass http://localhost:8101/project/proxified/
     271        # Turns out we don't really need complicated RewriteRules here at all
     272        RequestHeader set REMOTE_USER %{REMOTE_USER}s
     273</Location>
     274}}}
     275
     276Then we need a single file plugin to recognize HTTP_REMOTE_USER header as valid authentication source. HTTP headers like '''HTTP_FOO_BAR''' will get converted to '''Foo-Bar''' during processing. Name it something like '''remote-user-auth.py''' and drop it into '''proxified/plugins''' directory:
     277{{{#!python
     278from trac.core import *
     279from trac.config import BoolOption
     280from trac.web.api import IAuthenticator
     281
     282class MyRemoteUserAuthenticator(Component):
     283
     284    implements(IAuthenticator)
     285
     286    obey_remote_user_header = BoolOption('trac', 'obey_remote_user_header', 'false',
     287               """Whether the 'Remote-User:' HTTP header is to be trusted for user logins
     288                (''since ??.??').""")
     289
     290    def authenticate(self, req):
     291        if self.obey_remote_user_header and req.get_header('Remote-User'):
     292            return req.get_header('Remote-User')
     293        return None
     294
     295}}}
     296
     297Add this new parameter to your TracIni:
     298{{{#!ini
     299[trac]
     300...
     301obey_remote_user_header = true
     302...
     303}}}
     304
     305Run tracd:
     306{{{#!sh
     307tracd -p 8101 -s proxified --base-path=/project/proxified
     308}}}
     309
     310Note that if you want to install this plugin for all projects, you have to put it in your [TracPlugins#Plugindiscovery global plugins_dir] and enable it in your global trac.ini.
     311
     312Global config (e.g. `/srv/trac/conf/trac.ini`):
     313{{{#!ini
     314[components]
     315remote-user-auth.* = enabled
     316[inherit]
     317plugins_dir = /srv/trac/plugins
     318[trac]
     319obey_remote_user_header = true
     320}}}
     321
     322Environment config (e.g. `/srv/trac/envs/myenv`):
     323{{{#!ini
     324[inherit]
     325file = /srv/trac/conf/trac.ini
     326}}}
     327
     328=== Serving a different base path than /
    185329Tracd supports serving projects with different base urls than /<project>. The parameter name to change this is
    186 {{{
    187 tracd --base-path=/some/path
     330{{{#!sh
     331 $ tracd --base-path=/some/path
    188332}}}
    189333
    190334----
    191 See also: TracInstall, TracCgi, TracModPython, TracGuide, [trac:TracOnWindowsStandalone?version=13#RunningTracdasservice Running tracd.exe as a Windows service]
     335See also: TracInstall, TracCgi, TracModPython, TracGuide, [trac:TracOnWindowsStandalone#RunningTracdasservice Running tracd.exe as a Windows service]